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Elevated calprotectin and abnormal myeloid cell subsets discriminate severe from mild COVID-19


Blood myeloid cells are known to be dysregulated in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2. It is unknown whether the innate myeloid response differs with disease severity, and whether markers of innate immunity discriminate high risk patients. Thus, we performed high dimensional flow cytometry and single cell RNA sequencing of COVID-19 patient peripheral blood cells and detected the disappearance of non-classical CD14LowCD16High monocytes, the accumulation of HLA-DRLow classical monocytes, and the release of massive amounts of calprotectin (S100A8/S100A9) in severe cases. Immature CD10LowCD101-CXCR4+/- neutrophils with an immuno-suppressive profile accumulated as well in blood and lungs, suggesting emergency myelopoiesis. We finally showed that calprotectin plasma level and a routine flow cytometry assay detecting decreased frequencies of non-classical monocytes could discriminate patients who develop a severe COVID-19 form, suggesting a predictive value that deserves prospective evaluation.

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